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Mine Drainage Treatment Alternatives Analysis West Virginia Evaluation of alternatives to the existing use of caustic soda by a mining company to treat acid mine drainage from multiple abandoned coal mine sources to meet NPDES limits.  AMD sources were monitored to develop design ranges for contaminant loading and flow, which were then used to conceptually size hydrated lime delivery systems using silo or manual feed with aerators and a choice of clarifiers or settling basins.  Alternative sites and collection plans were developed to prepare comparative cost estimates for construction and operation with sludge cleaning and pumping. 
Sustainable Water Management for a Changing WorldSM
Representative Water Treatment
Passive Fly Ash Leachate Treatment Concept Design West Virginia Development of a conceptual design to combine three sedimentation ponds receiving leachate from active and closed fly ash disposal areas into a common passive treatment system.  The parameters of most concern on this site are selenium, arsenic, and hexavalent chromium.  Discharges from the ponds were monitored for flow and loading, and a passive treatment plan was developed using vertical flow organic beds and surface flow wetlands to provide long- term, low cost removal.  A collection plan was developed to evaluate options of gravity flow, pumping, and horizontal drilling to convey treated waters from existing headwaters stream discharge to the Monongahela River, where discharge standards are less restrictive.
Boron Treatment Evaluation Using Resin Ion Exchange Pennsylvania Design and operation of a pilot-scale study to test the use of a resin ion exchange product for removal of boron from fly ash leachate that is currently treated by a passive wetland system.  A resin column from a commercial vendor was installed on site to receive a portion of the flow from the passive system and operated through steady-state and breakthrough testing to determine the capacity of the resin under field conditions.  Results were used to size a full- scale concept system for which construction and operation costs were estimated, including various disposal options for waste products.
Passive Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment North Carolina Design of a pilot study and full-scale system retrofit to use vertical flow organic beds to remove selenium and mercury from FGD wastewater at a coal-fired utility’s existing wetland treatment system.  The pilot test was conducted because the existing surface flow wetlands had low selenium removal rates.  Site-specific sizing criteria were developed for vertical flow organic beds, the first large-scale application of this technology to FGD wastewater.  A full-scale system was designed to include six vertical flow cells operating in parallel and sized such that any one could be taken off line for maintenance while the remaining cells continued treatment.  The system readily achieved target selenium and mercury removal rates after construction.